The sensory organs

We call this committee the sensory organs. The models are often called sensory models and show the anatomy of organs / tissues that primarily concern sensing. Furthermore, we have chosen to subdivide the sensory models into 3 groups: Eye models, ear-nose-throat models and skin models.

In the selection of eye models, you will find both eye models with and without diseases as well as other things such as special glasses.

In the selection of ear-nose-throat models, you will find different ear models, nose models and throat models / neck models with and without diseases.

In the selection of skin models, you will find exclusively models of the skin and skin diseases such as acne and skin cancer.

Models of sensory organs are used especially for understanding anatomy as well as clinical aspects such as diseases, examinations and treatment.

Anatomically, all of these models really include many different tissues.

Eye models include many small and complex anatomical structures. With an eye model of the eyeball at hand, you can study the 3 layers of the eye - the outer, middle and inner. The outer layer is made up of the transparent cornea (cornea), which by limbus is connected to the sclera (the white tendon that forms the posterior 5/6). The middle layer (called uvea) is made up of the iris (iris) incl. the pupil, corpus ciliare (radiating body) and choroidea (choroid). The innermost layer is the retina.

On the eye models, the eye's musculoskeletal system is seen on the outside (the eye muscles). It consists of 6 transverse muscles - the 4 straight muscles called musculi recti and the 2 oblique muscles called musculi obliqui. Inside the eye models is the vitreous (corpus vitreum), and at the back is the optic nerve (nervus opticus) in relation to blood vessels.

The eye models can be divided so that the layers can be studied. Furthermore, the lens and the entire glass body can be removed. On the complete eye model, which also shows the eye area, some bone tissue, other soft tissues such as ligaments and adipose tissue are seen, as well as the tear apparatus, which consists of the lacrimal gland and the tear ducts (the tear ducts, tear sac and tear duct of which only the latter is not seen).

Ear-nose-throat models also include many small and complex structures. With a model of the whole ear, one can study the outer ear (auricula / ear mussel) with the ear canal (meatus acusticus externus), the middle ear (cavum tympani) and the inner ear (auris interna / labyrinth), which contains the cochlea (ear snail) and the balance organ ( with the archways). In addition, a large or small part of the tuba auditiva (the eustachian tube) is seen, which communicates with the nasopharynx (upper part of the pharynx) and the location of the ear in the temporal bone (os temoporale).

The ear models also show details such as the tympanic membrane and the middle ear's 3 small bones (ossicula auditus, ossicula auditoria), which respectively. is called the hammer (malleus), the anvil (incus) and the stirrup (stapes).

The models also show some small muscles as well as blood vessels such as the internal carotid artery. The most detailed model of the whole ear is very enlarged and also shows details like the oval window.

In the selection there is an ear model which only shows the 3 bones of the middle ear and a simulator for training in ear examination. In addition, there are 2 ear models, which show the small anatomical structures in the cochlea, where sensory cells register oscillations, which via nerve connections lead to the sound perception in the brain. One model is a giant model of these structures - the other model is smaller and shows far more details. The 2 models show a cross section through the ductus cochlearis with scala vestibuli and scala tympani respectively. over and under. Centrally, the membrane of the basilaris is seen, which is set in resonant oscillations in connection with hearing. These oscillations are detected by the complex system of sensory cells (the cortical organ / organum spirale), which are attached to the basilar membrane.

Both ear models of the cochlea show structures such as membrana tectoria, membrana vestibularis (Reissner's membrane), cuniculus internus (the cortical tunnel), ligamentum spirale, and cochlear nerve fibers. The model with the most details of the structures in the cochlea also shows details such as ganglion spirals and many specific cell types such as Hensen cells, Claudius cells and Böttcher cells.

In these ear models (cochlear models / models of the cochlea), the cochlear nerve is seen, which is the auditory nerve. It is a component of the vestibulocochlear nerve (8th cranial nerve / brain nerve which is also called the auditory and balance nerve). The vestibular nerve (equilibrium nerve) is the second component of the 8th cranial nerve.

The nasal / sinus models / sinus models include small and complex anatomical structures. With a nasal model in hand, one can study the nasal cavity (cavum nasi), some of the oral cavity (cavum oris), a little of the pharynx (sinus frontalis / forehead cavity, sinus sphenoidalis / wedge cavity, sinus maxillaris / jaw cavity and sinus ethmoidalis). ). The sinus models also show the 3 mussel bones of the nose (concha nasalis superior, media and inferior). One sinus model also shows the olfactory nerve.

With the tongue model in hand, you can study the tongue muscles, the upper side with the 4 papillae (papillae vallatae, papillae filiformes, papillae fungiformes and papillae foliatae), a bit of the mandible (mandibula) with teeth and 2 of the 3 oral glands (glandula submandibularis and gland) .

The 3 larynx models / neck models primarily show the larynx with laryngeal cartilage, laryngeal muscles, vocal folds (plicae vocales), the larynx (epiglottis), the 2 joints called articulatio cricothyroidea and the articulatio cricocharytenoidea. Two of the neck models also show the thyroid gland (gl. Thyroidea), one or more of the parathyroid glands (glandulae parathyroidea) and vascular and nerve supply. On the latter 2 models, the pharynx can be sensed, even if it is not delimited.

The larynx model at the highest price is, unlike the other 2, movable in the joint of the larynx and can thus be used to understand how the length, tension and mutual distance of the vocal folds are regulated.

Skin models include the 2 layers of the skin (the epidermis / epidermis and the dermis) and a bit of the subcutis. On several of the models, one can also study the layered structure of the epidermis, which consists of the stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum and stratum corneum.

On all skin models, important structures are seen in the dermis, such as blood vessels, hair follicles with associated smooth muscle (m. Arrector pili) and sweat and sebaceous glands. Some models also show encapsulated (afferent) nerve endings such as Meissner corpuscles and Pacini corpuscles.

One of the skin models also shows a nail as well as a hair root. The model shows the hair root with the medulla, cortex and hair cuticle as well as a nail with associated nail bearing.

On all models, some of the subcutaneous tissue is also shown in yellow at the bottom. This symbolizes fat cells (since the subcutaneous tissue consists mainly of fat cells).

Clinically, the eye models can be used to understand diseases of the eye. These can be, for example, "red eye", retinal detachment, vitreous collapse, diabetic eye disease, uveitis, scleritis as well as metastases and primary tumors such as malignant melanomas (breast cancer) in the uvea.

The complete eye model can also be used to understand diseases of the lacrimal gland and the tear ducts such as tear duct stenosis. The practical eye model can be used to demonstrate and understand the representation of objects on the retina (retina), accommodation (via changes in the curvature of the lens), myopia (myopia) and farsightedness (hypermetropia).

An ear model / plastic ear can, on the other hand, be used to understand disorders and diseases in the ear's various tissues / structures. These can be, for example, otitis media, cholesteatoma (veins), perforated eardrum and myringitis bullosa. The models that show tissue in the cochlea can be used to understand disease, injury or congenital deformity in cochlear hair cells as well as cochlear implantation.

A nasal model / sinus model / sinus model can be used to understand disorders / diseases such as sinusitis and nasal polyps as well as treatments such as surgery of nasal mussels (conchotomy). The tongue model can be used to understand diseases / disorders in the tongue such as fissured tongue, infections and cancer.

A laryngeal / throat model can be used to understand many disorders such as epiglottitis, vocal cord polyps, nodular goiter, edema laryngis and cancers. Furthermore, the larynx model can be used to understand examination methods such as laryngoscopy and treatments such as laryngeal surgery. If the neck joint is flexible on the model, it can also be used to demonstrate movements.

Finally, a skin model can be used to understand skin disorders and skin diseases such as psoriasis, folliculitis, acne and skin tumors. Furthermore, they can be used to understand other things such as burns, which are traditionally divided into degrees (1st degree, 2nd degree, etc.).

The acne model has been developed to understand acne vulgaris (pimples / blackheads), which is inflammation of the sebaceous glands. The model also shows comedones.

The skin model of breast cancer (malignant melanoma) in various stages, on the other hand, has been developed to understand this malignant skin cancer.

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